We calculate our community investment spend using the internationally recognized London Benchmarking Group standard. This includes cash donations to registered charitable organisations, as well as a cash equivalent for in-kind contributions.

In 2018, the Group spent £ 27.3 million supporting community activities.

The direct cash donations to charitable organisations amounted to £ 19.6 million, of which approximately £ 4.4 million came from our EU operations, which are principally our UK insurance operation and M & G. The remaining £ 15.2 million was contributed to charitable organisations by Jackson National Life Insurance Company and Prudential Corporation Asia.

The cash contribution to charitable organisations from our EU operations is broken down as follows: education £ 2,337,000; social, welfare and environment £ 1,995,000 and cultural £ 64,000.

Community investment spend as at 31 December 2018 * 2018
£ m
£ m
£ m
£ m
UK and Europe (charitable cash donations) 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.8
Asia and US (charitable cash donations) 15.2 14.3 11.0 13.0
In-kind donations across the Group 7.7 6.6
4.8 2.9
Total 27.3 25.8 20.8 21.7

* Figures exclude funding for CR initiatives such as the UK apprenticeship scheme, which are not channelled through charitable bodies.

Comparative historic data for total in-kind donations and total community investment spend has been restated due to improvements in the consolidation of in-kind donations at one of our business units. Please refer to the Basis of Reporting for further detail.